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Changing magnetic field causes current

A solenoid is connected in series to a galvanometer as shown below.

A galvanometer measures both the magnitude and the direction of a current.

A bar magnet is moved in and out of the solenoid.

This is the set-up of Faraday's experiment on electromagnetic induction.
This is the set-up of Faraday's experiment on electromagnetic induction.

Observations:

  • Current flows when the bar magnet is moving into the solenoid or out of the solenoid.
  • Current is zero when the magnet is stationary.

Conclusion:

  • A potential difference (electromotive force) is induced whenever the magnetic field passing through the solenoid changes. This causes a current to flow, which is detected by the galvanometer.