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Definition of a matrix

A matrix is a table or array of numbers or letters arranged in rows and columns. The table is delimited by brackets [ ] or parentheses ( ). The plural of matrix is matrices.

These are four examples of matrices of different sizes: $$$ \begin{pmatrix}1&2&3\\4&5&6\end{pmatrix},\quad \begin{bmatrix}1&x\\1&y\\1&z \end{bmatrix},\quad \begin{pmatrix}1&1\\0&1\end{pmatrix},\quad \begin{bmatrix}1\\0\\-1\end{bmatrix} $$$

The numbers contained within a matrix are called elements or entries.