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Summary of cell components

Cell structures can be distinguished by their function and shape:

Component Function and shape
Nucleus Contains the cell's genetic material; large sphere
Mitochondria Produce energy for the cell; rounded rods with second folded membrane inside
Chloroplasts Produce sugars by photosynthesis; oval disk
Ribosomes Synthesise proteins; very small
Endoplasmic reticulum Folds and delivers new proteins to the Golgi body; network of membrane compartments
Golgi body Delivers proteins to their destinations; group of stacked flat membrane enclosures
Cell membrane Encloses the cytoplasm and all organelles
Cell wall Protects the cell and defines cell shape