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Hydraulic press

A hydraulic press is a machine that uses the pressure of a fluid to convert a small force acting on a small area into a large force over a large area.

Hydraulic presses are used in industry to forge metals and lift very heavy objects.

A force $$F_{1}$$ is applied to one piston pushing the liquid deeper into the container. The liquid then pushes up against the second piston with a force $$F_{2}.$$

The pressure of a fluid inside a closed container is the same everywhere (we can ignore the small pressure differences due to height unless the container is very tall). This means that the pressure on the two pistons in the diagram is the same.

The pressure on each piston is equal to the force divided by the area so $$$\Tred{\frac{F_{1}}{A_{1}}} = \Tblue{\frac{F_{2}}{A_{2}}}$$$

If $$A_{1}$$ is much smaller than $$A_{2}$$ then a small force $$F_{1}$$ can be used to create a much larger force $$F_{2}$$.

A hydraulic press converts a small force into a larger one
A hydraulic press converts a small force into a larger one