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Bacterial genes

Bacterial genes and eukaryotic genes have significant structural differences.

The majority of the bacterial genome is coding; about 90% of the DNA found in E. coli codes for protein. This figure can be as low as 3% in some eukaryotes.

Bacterial genes nearly always lack introns (non-coding DNA within a gene).

This means that genes are typically much closer together on the bacterial chromosome and clusters of genes (operons) can be transcribed together.

This is a faster and more straightforward way of producing proteins than the eukaryotic method. Due to the small quantity of non-coding DNA, the bacterial gene can be considered to be 'tidier' than the prokaryotic genome.

The human genome on the left contains large sections of non-coding DNA. Almost all of the prokaryotic genome on the right will code for protein.
The human genome on the left contains large sections of non-coding DNA. Almost all of the prokaryotic genome on the right will code for protein.