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Frameshift mutation

A frameshift mutation is the result of the addition or deletion of nucleotides.

A frameshift mutation is often a more damaging mutation than a point mutation. It can result in changing virtually every amino acid in a protein.

If a mutation results in a cytosine base being inserted into the sequence TAT CCG TCG ACG TAC, the sequence will be read completely differently: TCA TCC GTC GAC GTA C.

Every single amino acid after the point of mutation changes because the codons are altered.

Tay-Sachs disease, which affects the nervous system, is a frameshift mutation which is caused by a four base insertion.

Not all insertion and deletion mutations result in a frameshift. If the insertion or deletion is a multiple of three, there will be no frame shift.

This is because the change still allows the codons after the mutation to be read properly.