Supercharge your learning!

Use adaptive quiz-based learning to study this topic faster and more effectively.

Types of mutations

Mutations can be divided into two broad categories: small scale and large-scale.

Type of mutation Definition
Small scale These mutations affect only a few nucleotides or a gene.
Point mutation Single base substitution.
Insertion Nucleotides are incorporated into the DNA. These can be more severe than substitutions as they often result in a frameshift.
Deletion Nucleotides are removed from the DNA sequence. May also result in a frameshift..
Large scale These mutations have a significant effect on the entire chromosome.
Gene duplication Whole genes or sets of genes are duplicated.
Gene deletion Whole genes or sets of genes are removed from the chromosome.
Chromosomal translocation Genes from one chromosome are moved into another non-paired chromosome
Chromosomal inversion The sequence of bases in a gene segment is inverted (e.g. ATGC to CGTA).