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Translation mechanism: Elongation

Polypeptide chains form during the elongation stage of translation. This is analogous to elongation in transcription.

Once the initiator tRNA and the ribosome have bound to the mRNA, a second tRNA molecule can bind to the next codon on the mRNA.

Only two tRNA molecules can bind to the ribosome-mRNA complex at one time. These tRNA molecules carry amino acids.

The ribosome causes peptide bonds to form between these amino acids, and so the chain grows.

Once the peptide bond is formed, the initiator tRNA separates from the ribosome. The ribosome moves towards the 3' end of the mRNA.

This process is repeated for the remaining codons. Another tRNA molecule binds with the next codon and adds another amino acid. The previous tRNA is then released.