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Properties of covalent compounds

Covalent compounds are generally poor conductors of electricity and heat because they do not have free electrons or ions and their atoms are in fixed positions.

Water is a simple covalent molecule. The red sphere represents an oxygen atom while the white spheres represent hydrogen atoms.
Water is a simple covalent molecule. The red sphere represents an oxygen atom while the white spheres represent hydrogen atoms.

The boiling and melting points of covalent compounds vary significantly but tend to be lower than those of ionic compounds.

No chemical bonds have to be broken to melt or boil covalent molecular substances. Energy is required to separate the molecules from each other.