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Constants and quantities used in the ideal gas equations

One mole is equivalent to $$6.02\times10^{23}$$ particles. This value is known as the Avogadro constant ($$N_{\text{A}}$$). It was obtained by determining the number of atoms in $$0.012\text{ kg}$$ of carbon-12.

The number of particles $$N$$ is related to the number of moles $$n$$ by:$$$N=nN_{\text{A}}$$$

The molar gas constant $$R$$ is equivalent to $$8.314\text{ m}^{2}\text{ kg}\text{ s}^{-2}\text{ K}^{-1}$$. It is a commonly used universal constant in thermodynamic calculations.

The Boltzmann constant $$k$$ is equivalent to $$1.38\times10^{-23}\text{m}^{2}\text{kgs}^{-2}K^{-1}$$. It is related to the molar gas constant $$R$$ by:$$$R=kN_{\text{A}}$$$