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Systems in thermal physics

A system is a group of particles which are considered, for the purposes of study, to be a single entity.

A thermodynamic system is similar to a mechanical system. But in thermodynamics, systems are studied with respect to energies rather than forces.

In a closed system in mechanics there are no external forces acting on the system. A closed system in thermodynamics is one in which energy but not mass can be exchanged between the system and its surroundings.

A gas cloud, a box of excited particles and a fluid section in a pipe are examples of systems.